THE HISTORICAL TRACE OF THE ACEH NATION
The Beginning of the Mention of Aceh
There is a saying that says, "what's in a name". There is another saying that states, "al-ismu ad-du'a" (name is prayer). Name can determine success, kindness, luck, and vice versa, with the name of his life will be more motivated and vice versa. Allah swt calls humans to call other people's names with nicknames the good, "And do not call you with bad titles." (Q.S. Al Baqarah: 11). Prophet Muhammad SAW said: "then make a good name for yourself." (H.R. Abu David). Good in general can be interpreted as having no reproach (disgrace), lucky, and deserving.
Therefore, it is quite important about the origin the mention of the name or term Aceh, because until now it has not there is a consensus of historians regarding Aceh's meaning and clarity the word Aceh itself comes from and who is the first called the term so that it finally became Aceh. Meaning Aceh can be known if the initial mention is known, by whom, and for what purpose, and why should the term (name or toponym) is mentioned, of course there is a connection and connection with the history of the country itself in the past.
It is important to know the initial mention of Aceh and its meaning, because this is not only a futura1 motivation for the nation but as identity and identity for self-development and other matters related to the nation's future. Citizens of the nation that is or blood native Acehnese must know these origins not only for historical necessity, but far from it. One factor the greatness of the Jewish nation today because they know history of his people and know very well who they are.
Aceh is not only a large nation consisting of ethnic diversity in the world, not just a wealthy country and famous since ancient times, but Aceh is a civilization of formidable nations in the world especially from a military and diplomatic perspective. People Aceh today does not come from one entity, but comes from various ethnic groups in the world. The Acehnese do not only come from of the Quraysh, a tribe from the Arabian Peninsula relatively noble and honorable, but also of ethnic Tamils, Indians, Turkey, Taiwan, Persia, Kurds, and so on in the end become the Malay Acehnese.
This can be proven from the language used Acehnese. Likewise with gestures, culture, character, and the typical and way of getting along with the Acehnese is difficult evidence indisputable, the reality is the Acehnese, and it is not exaggerated and legal to be called the Acehnese as a collection of entities world that forms one large community that is today located at 2⁰-6⁰ North Latitude and 95⁰-98⁰ East Longitude. At present the province with the title Veranda of Mecca is only has an area of approximately 57,956.00 km².2 Whereas the area of Aceh during the era of the Aceh Sultanate before being annexed by Dutch colonialists to Kampar (Riau).3
Ayang Utriza Yakin wrote that the Aceh border to Jambi and Malaysia, “Aceh became the biggest empire in Sumatra throughout the 16th and 17th centuries. In the political realm, The Sultanate of Aceh controls most of the coast on the Island Sumatra. The eastern part of the Sultanate of Aceh up to Deli. While the western part stretches to Daya and Padang, in fact Indrapura. The sultanate's center covered three important cities, namely: Pedir, Pasai, and Samarlangga (pen-Samalanga) to extend to the area Jambi. This sultanate also controlled most of the peninsula Malay, which is located directly opposite the island of Sumatra, namely:Kedah, Perak, to Johor, and Pahang.”4
the Indo-Aryan and Dravidian languages, including at including Tamil, Sanskrit, Kannada, Telugu, and Malayalam Odia. According to the author, Pastun, Urdu, Badeshi, Torwali, Dameli, Gawar-Bati, Ushojo, Yidgha, Khowar and Ormuri belongs to the part called Negeri Hindi.
The above conclusion cannot be denied because it is the fact is that there are Acehnese who come from other nations as previously described. But there is another fact, the gestures of the Acehnese are also very similar African nations and various nations in the world, especially from Asia. In short, it is the ancestors of the Acehnese or people's blood Aceh is not from the same nation or a DNA variant (Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid), in other words the Acehnese are people of mixed blood. Cite the terms used Dutch writer, Julius Jacobs (1842-1895 AD), in his work “Het Familie en Kampongleven Op Groot Atjeh” mentions mixing the blood with anthropological mixtum, (a mixture blood originating from various ethnic groups immigrants). Fact proves that a community that is not derived from same family (nation), conflict, or ultra differences Perception is something that is difficult to avoid.
The province which has 18 regencies and 5 cities has arrived At this time, it has not been agreed when the official name for ACEH will be written first started. In the Dutch colonial era, Aceh was more many are written with Acheh or Atjeh. However, from various literature found that the area had been hit political and legal conflict with Central Government (Indonesia) the mention of Aceh varies. The nations of the world are have stopped or lived in Bumi Iskandar Muda in the past not mention or call Aceh by the same name. The ancient Chinese (China) for example called Aceh with A-tsi or Ache, even calling it Atje and Tashi, also sometimes calls his country Lanwou li or Lan-li. When viewed from one side, the term Arabs is Chinese not much different, between Asyi and A-tsi or Ache, that is dialect.9
Apart from being called Asyi, the Arab community also used to be called Asyi sometimes calling dachim, dagin, not infrequently even calling dacin for people who are in the jurisdiction of Aceh.10 The word Asyi in Arabic means beautiful with hairlong and bushy. It is possible that the Arabs were visiting Aceh in the past saw lots of women those in the land of Aceh have thick and long hair so they call Aceh Asyi. Fun Call also pinned for people who are generous, creative, obedient to obligations, and independent. When the letter "A" is replaced with "'A" (ain) becomes 'Asyie or 'Asyiya, then meaning is evening or evening. Maybe people from outside Aceh they often arrive in the afternoon in a different country known a lot of gold and natural potential.
In Japanese, asyi or achi means door gate. The intent of the gate here is probably because Aceh is the first region in Southeast Asia to convert to Islam or the earliest region found in the archipelago when coming from Arabian Peninsula and Europe. Anthony Reid in his writings that Aceh or Sumatra is a "golden land of guardians and Achen or Achem (France), A-tsi or Ta-Shi (China),16 and others are no different, and it is thought that the name Aceh began from the word.
A French writer Ed Dulaurier(1807-1881 AD) wrote in the Asiatitique Journal which published in 1839 under the title "Chronique du royaume d'Atcheh dans L'ile de Sumatra, traduite du Malay" wrote the country Aceh with Aceh.
"Cette defaite porta un coup terrible ala puissance d'Atcheh." John Anderson in his work entitled “Acheen and the Ports on the North and East Coasts of Sumatra with incidental notices of the Trade in the Eastern Seas and the Aggression of the Dutch” 240 pages thick written in 1839 wrote Acheen for the Veranda of Mecca on page 3 of the book.
“The treaty annuls all for treaties, and with respect to that concluded in 1819 with Acheen, the British plenipotentiaries undertook that it should be modified as soon as possible into a simple arrangement for the hospitable reception of British vessels and subject in the ports of Acheen.”
Dutch geographer and ethnologist Pieter Johannes Veth (1814-1895 AD) in his book "Atchin en Zijne Betrekkingen tot Nederland, Topograhisch Historische Beschrijving” (Aceh and Relations with the Netherlands: A Description of History Topography) published in 1873 wrote Atchin for the state of the sultanate which was once a protectorate of Turkey
Tome Pires (1468-1540) was a famous Portuguese writer wrote Aceh with Achei in his book "Suma Oriental que Trata do Mar Roxo até Aos Chins” (Overview of the Region East, from the Red Sea to China). Another case with the nation of Portugal (Portuguese) and other Italians, they call the country of Aceh is different. Occasionally they call with Achem, Achen, and some even mention it directly Aceh for the Province which currently has 289 districts, 778 mukim and 6,493 gampong/village.
If in European manuscripts between the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries still write Achin or Atchin. In ancient India (Sanskrit), found the term Acin which means free from fear. Person The British like William Marsden called Aceh three versions, namely Atcheen, Acheen, and Achin. 19 French call it Achen and Acheh.
There are also those who write with A-chan and Arshir as well in the work of Schlegel and I-Tsing.20 In the work of Suma Oriental Tome Pires a Portuguese written in 1520 as quoted by Denys Lombard as saying, there are also those who say Achei and Louis Charles Damais, a French historian wrote with Acih. Between Aceh and Acih is not much different. If interpreted through the Pythagorean method, the word Acih has multiple meanings; (i) fond of pursuing honor; (ii) spiritual; (iii) wisdom; and (iv) violent.
The term Achem or Dachem to refer to Aceh can read in the book by Anthony Xavier Soares (1855-1922 M) entitled “Portuguese Vocables in Asiatic Language” which has been republished by Asian Educational Services New Delhi, Madras in 1988. The following is the contents of the book on the page ixxxvi wrote, “Achinese is one of the languages spoken in Sumatra and which has, as its name indicates, it's home in Achen…” Pada The book's footnote also emphasized, “The Portuguese generally called it Achem (or frequently, by the adhesion of genitive preposition, Dachem).” In Persian Achen means "to reach", whereas in Ugandan, Achen means "the twins".
A Dutch admiral who is also a historian Pierre Willemsz Verhoeven (1573-1609 AD) who had been there in Aceh on 10 November 1608 wrote Aceh in his book “Voyage de I'admiral Pierre Willemsz Verhoeven aux indes orientales” as quoted by Ayang Utriza I am sure with Achem's words.
“Il y a encore d'autres supplies. On coupe aux prevenus lesmains, ou les pies, ou bien une main et une pie ou les parties naturelles, et on les envoie dans l'isle puloai ou pulo wai, qui n'est Presque peuplee de pareilles gens. On en voit aussi a Achem, qui mandient leur pain.”
On September 28, 1647 a prominent German figure Caspar Schmalkalden (1616-1652 AD) also visited Aceh also wrote in his work “Die Wundersamen Reisen des Caspar Schmalkalden Nach West-und Ostindien 1642-1652” as quoted Ayang Utriza Yakin wrote, “Auf Achem habe ich einen Mann, wie der vorige Abrib aus weiset, gesehen, welcher weder Hande noch fubehatte…..”2
John Davis of Sandridge (1550-1605 AD), a traveler England who had worked for Cornelis de Houtman (1565- 1599 AD) from the Netherlands had stopped in Aceh in 1599 wrote Achin for Aceh in his book
“The one and twentieth (June 1599) we anchored in the Bay of Achin, in twelve fathome. Being here, the King sent hos Officers to measure the length and breadth of our ships, to take the number of our Men and Ordnance, which they did.”
If you pay attention to the term Aceh spoken by Arabs and several other nations in the past with the names Asy, Achi, Achem, Achin, Acheem, and so on the dialect is not much different, there is a possibility that it comes from the word Asyi (a) or Asia. Asia literally means 'eastern country' from Phonesia.
The most beautiful and easy language in the world is Arabic, so to find out the origin of the mention of Aceh, then the writer is more sure that the real Asian name for the land of Aceh. Asyi is a term for Asian people who exist in Aceh. In Arabic it is known as the ratio of eating, that is mentioned Asia for the region in the Arab East and the people who in the land of Aceh is called Asyi.
Although the variant designation for the country of Aceh is the same have been described, but the difference in designation leaves no doubt that what is meant by toponyms that is the land of Aceh. Small example for example, Asian people Southeastern especially in Indonesia call Egypt for country The pyramids or the land that once ruled Pharaoh. Temporary Europeans call Egypt for Egypt and Mishri by people of the Middle East, especially those who speak Arabic.
Other examples like England with England or Great Britain with United Kingdom. The language is called English or English. Greece with Greece or Greek, Netherland with Netherlands or Holland. Another example is Japan with Japan or Nippon with Japan, and so on. Examples like this not a few, if in Aceh there is a name of the area that was attacked by the Dutch army for 29 years was unsuccessful, namely Bateeiliek and sometimes it is called Kutaglee which is located in the District Samalanga-Bireuen. These names (the mention of Aceh) none other than the Veranda of Mecca or as it is also known Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam. Different names or dialects difficult to avoid because apart from being of different ethnicity, environment, culture, situation, also because of the influence of social strata.
Another example is the mention or writing of the name Sumatra by foreigners who vary mainly under 19th century or during the kingdoms in the archipelago power. Some write or mention with Sumentala, Comoltora, Sumoltra, Sumobor, Samotra, Somatra, Zamatra, Camatra, Samadra, Shamatrah, Samantara, and others. Marcopolo said with Java Minor, even the name Taprobane is also addressed to Sumatra. Some Arabs call it Ramni or Jute for Sumatra Island. In addition, the island of Sumatra as well often referred to as Pulau Ruja, Pulau Andalas or Indalas, and Pulau Percha.
This country which is known to be rich in gold is also known as Oskegetin's name. This term is generally given by travelers Persian. In Persian, Oski means gold and getin means earth. In Sanskrit, Oskegetin means Swarnadwipa. Claude Guillot believed that Oskegetin meant is the island of Sumatra.28 Another name for the country of Aceh is Lamuri or Lambri, Ramni or Rami. This is reinforced by the explanation Tome Pires and Claudi Guillot. 29 In addition there are the names Nanpo-li (Lan-po-li), Lan-li, Lan-wu-li, and nan-wu-li.
Aceh Linguistic Expert Dr. Abdul Gani Asyik said, the best and most beautiful language in the world is language Arab. So if you pay attention to the designation (oral and spoken) of the name Aceh by the Arabs is Asyi, so it can be believed that starting from Aca or Acai changed his dialect to Atji, Asyi, Acin, A-tsi, Ache, Achei, Achin, Atchin, Achem, Acheem, Astjien, Acheh, Atjeh and lastly became Aceh. According to William Marsden (1754-1836 AD), a British orientalist who had lived in Aceh and wrote relatively comprehensively about Sumatra in his monumental work "The History of Sumatra" explained that what Aceh really meant was an area that extends inland only about 50 miles (approx 80.5 km) to the southeast and its boundaries extend to the land of yang speak the Batak language. Singkil is included in the jurisdiction of Aceh.
In 1778 the area of Aceh reached Karti in the north and east coasts, and the west to Indrapura and Tiku are included in the Agam-West Sumatra Regency area. Indrapura is the center of a kingdom in the past located in the South Coastal District (entered the region present-day West Sumatra), bordering Bengkulu Province and Jambi.
Denys Lombard said, at the end of the 19th century the name Aceh shows the whole area stretching from the end north of the island of Aceh to the imaginary line31 that connects them Tamiang on the east coast with Barus on the west coast.
The Origin of the Acehnese
The first humans on earth were Prophet Adam a.s and Siti Hawa (Eva). They give birth to about 40 pairs of children twin. Prophet Adam lived for 930 years or was present in advance Earth around 5872 BC. He is thought to have died in 4942 BC. During the life of Prophet Adam, they were fighting over each other spouse. The Shari'a at that time prohibited marriage to one double, but interspersed with others, but there they are those who reject the Shari'a so that conflicts arise with each other other. From this conflict then they look for each other's place which is considered safe to make a living, especially for those who lost.
Habil (Abel) and Qabil (Qayen) are real examples of two sons Prophet Adam who was fighting over a life partner. Cain has the pretty twins of Lilina (Iqlimiya), while Habil had a twin partner Lahuda (Layudha) less attractive. To get a beautiful partner, it is prescribed to make sacrifices, but only Allah accept Abel's sacrifice, so that the right to marry with Climatea is Abel. Qabil did not accept his twin married to Abel so he rebelled and happened the first murder in human history causing Abel to die at the hands of his own brother
One of the sons of Prophet Adam who became a leader in the land of the Indian Continent is Syts. From this lineage the Prophet was born Nuh a.s (3993-3043 BC) bin Lamak.33 Prophet Noah according to one Sumber has four children, namely Kan'an, Sam, Ham, and Yafis. Another opinion says only three people are not included Kan'an because he died in the big flood disaster no want to get into the boat that Noah made. Only from His three human children fill the earth at this time.
In the Arab Lands lived Sam and his descendants, while Yafis is the oldest child and migrates to Europe
his descendants became Europeans, and Ham the youngest son Prophet Adam migrated to Africa (Habsyah) including his descendants spread in the Land of Hindi (India and its surroundings). Hams have seven children, they are Sind, Hind, Zanj, Qibthi, Habshi, Nubah, and Kan'an. Perhaps the name Indies or India (Land Hindi) is taken from the name of one of Ham bin Adam's children, Likewise with Habsyi who is synonymous with Habsyah or Ethiopia. Ethiopia itself is classified as an African nation.
In the language of Ethiopia comes from "Ityopp'is" which means child Ham's grandson. One of Ham's sons was Misraim (3100-3000 BC) or another name is Menes who became the ruler of Egypt they migrated from the South China region to spread to Taiwan, the Philippines, to Sulawesi, and Kalimantan. They this is what brought Austronesian languages.
Recent research conducted by more than 90 scientists from the Pan-Asian SNP (Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms) consortium under the auspices of the Human Genome Organization (HUGO). studied 73 ethnic Asian populations in 10 countries (Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, Philippines, India, China, Korea, Japan and Taiwan) with a total of about 2,000 samples. Conclusions of research conducted for 3 years and has been released in Journal of Science on December 10, 2009 entitled “Mapping Human Genetic Diversity in Asia” is to refute that conclusion states that the population in the archipelago originates from Taiwan or the Malayan peninsula, even if they are from the other way around archipelago which migrated there as a result of the exposure of Sundaland several thousand years ago.
It is recognized that people in Aceh and the archipelago others are not derived from a single genetic and by consensus concluded, originally came from the earth of Africa. On the last wave many believed they came from Arabian Peninsula which brought the teachings of Islam.
This is perhaps what caused the people of the Middle East to flock to Aceh long ago now, even the one who first spread the teachings Islam originates from the Arab lands of the descendants of the Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him, namely Sayyid Ali Al-Mukhtabar bin Muhammad Ad-Dibaj bin Jafar Sidiq bin Muhammad Al-Baqir bin Ali Zainal Abidin bin Saidina Husen bin Saidina Ali-Fatimah Zahrah bint Rasulullah
In the literature written by various historians from inside or outside Aceh until now there has been none a consensus regarding the ancestral origins of the Acehnese indeed. Likewise classical and postmodern writers there is no consensus on the origins of the Acehnese. They conclude based on the disciplines and analysis of each. It is hoped that in the future there will be concern or awareness Aceh authorities to organize an international conference about Aceh from various experts in the world, especially historians who knows about the origins of Aceh until finally found a conclusion that is closer to the truth the origin of human first occupants on Earth Aceh or grandmother Acehnese ancestors.
From the language used as described before, it is certain that modern Acehnese are not come from one family or lineage. But in the book This will be explained from various perspectives of grandmother's origins moyag Acehnese since the first time present in the province most western Indonesia at this time to become Ureueng Aceh or nation aceh.
According to some theories, archaeologically speaking, the inhabitants The first generation of Acehnese came from the post-Pleistocene era (Diluvium). This era lasts from 2,588,000 to 11,500 years, during which ancient humans still lived. this era also known as the glacial age which is characterized by the melting of ice in the North Pole due to global climate change to cover parts of Northern Europe, North Asia, and North America. If temperature the heat goes down, the ice expands which causes sea water down, if the temperature rises, then the ice will melt so the areas covered with ice will be less and less and causing sea level to rise.
Sea water drops 100 meters to 150 meters from the surface sea so that the ocean becomes shallow turning into land. Through this land then humans including animals from the territories seek a place that is considered safe and productive so they can survive.
At that time the archipelago (Indonesia) and the surrounding area still united, but because of the consequences it causes the islands are separated by oceans both with Asia and with Australia. In this era, it's not just humans Migrate, all the animals do the same. Here it is Humans begin to settle in places/areas that are considered safe and according to their physical strength. From Malaya (Malaysia) also moved to Aceh from the Mantra tribe or Mantir. There are also historians who write Mante, actually it is not different (synonym). They are a tribe Old Malays who first settled in the eastern region of Aceh, around Tamiang.
Some believe that the Mantra or Mantir tribe (Mante) is thought to have come from Cambodia, where everyday they speak the Cham language (Champa). Initially they arrived in Aceh after the Funan Kingdom took control power, but when this nation arrived in Aceh it was already there other residents who are believed to be from the Mante tribe
This opinion is disputed by many parties, one of which is Anthony Reid. According to Anthony Reid, these Champa arrived in the land of Aceh after they lost the war with Vietnam (Khmer people).39 The kingdom of Champa was founded in AD 192 and in 1451 it was attacked by the Buddhist Kingdom (Khmer) until most of the people exodus to various regions including to Aceh.
Cambodian Muslims who first came to Aceh thought to be named Sah Pu Lian (lin), a prince from the land of Cambodia who was expelled from his country and looking for protection to Aceh.40 So do not be surprised if inside the Acehnese language has many absorptions from the Campa language. Previously the Kinh or Khmer people of the Nguyen dynasty attacked the Islamic Champa Kingdom so they lost, the humans they got were the ancestors of people aceh.
Malay is the official language used in the Kingdom/Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam, even before the people in the land of Aceh became Muslim, which language Malay was also used, including in the Sriwijaya Kingdom and other Hindu/Buddhist patterned kingdoms in Aceh. Apart from the Malay language, the Acehnese language is also becoming the spoken language of the people in Aceh, but for correspondence and the books that were written in that era, mostly written in Malay
If you pay attention to the language used, it is suspected the majority of Aceh's population comes from ethnic groups in Asia speak Malay although from a linguistic point of view this language family has 45 languages. Among the similarities the Malay language used in Aceh with other regions is the name for the sea. West Kalimantan Malay (Pontianak), to call the sea and snakes for example, not the least bit different in the Aceh language, namely laot and ulal for uleue. So is Urak Lawoi' Malay language in Thailand, where they are for calling a cat with mi'aw, not much different from the language Aceh, namely noodles or mi'ong. Another similarity in mention sweet for example, the Malay language Urak Lawoi' calls maneh, and it is no different from the Aceh language, namely mameh or maneh
Another example, for example, is the Minang Malay language loud with kareh, not much different from the Aceh language, that is kreuh. Banjar Malay, especially in Kalimantan South, they call tu'ut for knee, and equals the Acehnese language (tu'ot), except that the dialect is only slightly different.
There is a theory that states the Malay language comes from the Austronesian group, the human group originating from the Yunan region of China42 later migration and arrival in the Southeast Asian region. that wave first arrived referred to as Proto Malay. They arrived in Asia Southeast around 2500 years BC. Then next came a new wave approximately 1500 years Before AD, and they are referred to as Deutro-Malays. According to Dada Meuraxa Acehnese belong to the Malay nation Deutro.
The presence of the Meulayu-Deutro disturbed the Malay-Proto thus moving to forest areas and areas hinterland with potential and productive land and close proximity with a water source. This Deutro-Malay group is said the ancestors of the Malay people who exist today. The Meulayu-Detro group generally live close by coast. In 1925 a Dutch archaeologist Van Stein Callenfels conducts research at Shell Hill in Aceh Tamiang, precisely in Wage Village, Karang Baru District. Results his research concluded, in the area is already inhabited by humans in the Mesolithic era. This era is human already know how to cultivate crops and hand-held axes (pebbles). They live in caves and eat shellfish so that about 7 meters of former shells collected there (Village Upah).
According to the Acehnese historian, Husaini Ibrahim, Shell Hill in Aceh Tamiang is suspected as one of the places of life the earliest in Aceh.44 Husaini Ibrahim suspects it has been there inhabited by humans about 6,000 years ago who came from in two waves. The first wave is called Malay Tua came from Champa (Indochina) via the Isthmus Malay-Peninsula Malaysai about 3 thousand years before AD. The second wave (Young Malays) came from the regions the same about 1,500 years BC.4
Language expert from Malaysia, Asmah Haji Omar explained that in the Malay Archipelago (archipelago) this has been there are residents who are then named as residents original. They are known as Negritos. These Negritos thought to have existed since 8000 BC. they live in in caves and their livelihood hunting animals. Expert English (Scottish) origin, John Crawfurd concludes, The mother of all languages, especially in Indonesia, is Malay and Java. John Crawfurd agrees with Asmah Haji Omar who believe the Malay speakers who migrated out Indonesia.
Niermann as quoted by Mohammad Said in his book below.
It is acknowledged that long before the Arabs, Chinese, Europeans, India, and other ethnic groups such as Persians, Africans, Turks, Kurds, and the Portuguese, in Tanah Rencong already inhabited by people from the Malay family, both Proto-Malay and Deutro-Malay. Even before that it was inhabited by the Negrito group their characteristics are black, curly hair, body size they are short, their noses are wide, and their eyes are round. Mohammad Said in his book Aceh Throughout the Ages states, ethnicity Gayo and Alas are of Old Malay descent (Malay Proto).
Regarding the existence of the Negrito group in Aceh, no few believe in the archipelago (Indonesia) including in Aceh has been inhabited by humans for a long time, it is estimated since 72,000 years ago or also called the Holocene era. On at that time a group of Homo Sapiens from Africa traveled to the southern part of the Arabian peninsula and continue to the east until India. About 5000 years ago, a group of African humans it reaches the archipelago. At that time Exposure Sunda or Sundaland, which is now Kalimantan, Aceh (Sumatra), the Malay Peninsula and Java are still united. The descendants of this group continue to wander to Australia (the forerunner of the Aborigines).
The next wave came from mainland Asia (now the region Vietnam) about 30,000 years ago. Next, around 5,000-6,000 last year, migration of speakers of Austronesian languages arrived in the archipelago. In genetic research of human origins on earth is known to have originated in Africa, which spread throughout the world, including Indonesia, through mainland China to Australia.
Based on linguistics, the language used tribes in Indonesia have the same family, namely Austronesian family originating from Formosa, Taiwan. Lots historians argue that the Austronesians in Formosa, Taiwan has existed since 4000 BC. From the Islands an Formosa, these Austronesian people then migrated to Philippines, Aceh (Indonesia), Madagascar, and New Zealand. However, it is believed that the ethnicity that used to inhabit the islands of Formosa are not indigenous, but descended from from mainland China. Migration of Indonesian ancestors begins around 4,500 to 3,000 BC. Initial wave of migration occurred in the northern Philippines. Then in 3000 BC to 2000 BC they have spread to Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Malaysia, Sumatra (Aceh), Java, and others.
The presence of humans in Aceh is believed to have originated for the first time from the Negrito group that became the Malay community. The Malay word actually consists of two words, mala (mula) and yu (country), namely the first country or land. It means, the earliest people to settle in the Southeast Asian region and its location is in Sumatra or also known as the Islands Swarnbahumi or Swarnadwipa. Other opinions included Raden Benedictus Slamet Muljana (a philologist from Yogjakarta) argues that the term Malayu or Melayu originates from Malaya word which in Sanskrit means "hill". Until now there has been no consensus among location historians actually the Malay kingdom was located, but it is believed to be on the island of Sumatra.
From the records of Yi Jing or also known as I Ching or I-Tsing (635-713 AD), a Buddhist monk from the Tang Dynasty, who visiting the archipelago between the years 688 - 695 mentions there a kingdom known as Mo-Lo-Yu (Malay), which within 15 days of sailing from Sriwijaya. Based on Yi's notes Jing, the kingdom is a sovereign country and later became a Sriwijaya colony.
James T. Collins and Bernd Nothofer stated, the Malays split into three. First, migration from Borneo (Kalimantan) to Sumatra and split all the way to north and became Malays in the Peninsula and later split into Champa people. From Champa down back to Sumatra and became Acehnese. Second, northward migration from island of Borneo and became Bruneians and then partly became Banjarese people. Third, from Borneo Island to the south and being a Jakarta Malay.
There are also those who believe that the Acehnese first came from the Achemenians (Achemenis) or more popular with the Achaemenid or Achaemenid (550–330 BC) was the first Persian Empire founded by Cyrus the Great. If associated with several kingdoms that never existed in Aceh, hence the presence of Persians in Aceh hard to argue with. The author has many Acehnese friends admit their genealogy comes from the land of Persia. History activist Aceh who is also the former Governor of Aceh, Ali Hasjmy explained one of the sons of the King of Persia, the Sassanid or Emperor Kisra who named Salman moved to Aceh 52 and married a local girl named Putri Mayang Seludang or also known as Dewi Ratna Keumala. The result of their marriage was four children, namely Syawir Nuwi, Syahir Tanwi (Puri), Syahir Puli (Poli), and Syahir Duli. The four sons of Syahrial Salman in Acehnese society it is known as Kaom Imeum Peuet (The Imams of the Four).
In Hadih Maja Aceh, using Sukee Imeum Peuet, not Kaom Imeum Peuet. Mohd. Aaron did not differentiate between the term Kawom with Sukee, which includes all descendants from a single male ancestor, relatives of male groups, groups, and troops. Sukee Imeum Peuet is included people who shake the world (gok-gok donya) according to the Hadith Maja who is already popular in Acehnese society, “Sukee Lhee Reutoh tires Aneuk drang, Sukee Ja Sandang jeura haleuba, Sukee Tok Batee na bacut-bacut, Sukee Imum Peuet nyang gok-gok donya.” According to Mohd. Harun, Sukee Imeum Peuet “is suspected of being formed from a combination of four subtribal groups or four priests. The term Imeum comes from Arabic, namely from the word priest which means leader. Mohd. Aaron added, "That's why it should be suspected that this Sukee Imeum Peuet is the name of the collectivity of the four groups that merged into one for various political interests, especially to rival groups/ another sukee.”
Another example of descent from Persia is in Aceh is the wife of King Trumon (South Aceh). Trumon's first king is Teungku Jakfar or also known as Teungku Singkil. The presence of figures from Persia in Aceh later existed relation to the previous large-scale migration, both on when the people of the Achaemenid Empire lost to the army Iskandar Zulkarnain from Macedonia and at that time afterwards.
The extent of the Achaemenid Empire's rule to years 500 BC stretches from the Indus Valley in the east, to to Thrace and Macedonia on the northeastern border of Greece. At that time only this power was great, nothing else on. Then in 334 BC, King of Macedonia Iskandar Zulkarnain (The Great Alexander) appears against The Achaemenid Empire.57 Believed at the time of the Achaemenid people lost the war with Iskandar Zulkarnain's army, a lot people to save themselves migration to various corners of the world so that some of them arrived in Aceh by sea
This nation comes from a Caucasus hill in Europe Middle. They have lived around 2500 years BC. One of their characteristics is that they like to wander, to the nation these are spread throughout Asia, Africa, Europe and also Aceh. One descendants moved to the land of Persia, then became a nation Persia, another tribe that moved to Aceh, then became Acehnese.
Broadly speaking, there are three diametrical opinions The main focus is on the origin of the indatu (ancestors) of the Acehnese the earliest to occupy the land of Aceh. First opinion said the ancestors of the Acehnese came from the country Taiwan, entered the territory of China now. Taiwan and China or China is not actually the same, even their origins also different. The new Chinese of the 14th century occupied Taiwan.
In 1945 after the end of World War II, The Republic of China led by the Kuomintang took
over Taiwan. China is forcing Taiwanese citizens to use Mandarin is different from the language adopted by the people of Taiwan, namely the Formosan language. Natives Taiwan is divided into two groups. The first group consists from about 12 tribes and live in the interior of Taiwan. They
refused to assimilate with the Chinese. second group, Pingpu, about 10 tribes that have merged with the Chinese so that in terms of the evolution of the original culture including language no longer used because it was banned by the Chinese authorities so it becomes extinct.
Taiwan's first group includes the Atayal tribe, Paiwan, Rukai, Saisiat, Tsao, Amis, Puyuma, Bunun, and Yami (Taoist). One of the languages of the Puyuma tribe in Taiwan that is exactly the same with the Aceh language is in calculating the number 1, ie sa. Number 2 is called old (two), number 3 is called teli (lhei), number 4 with pat (peut), and 6 with enem (nam). Another similarity such as the mention of the tail, in the Puyuma language it is called ikur, in the Acehnese language. Then fire, apoy (Puyuma), and apui (Aceh). The languages spoken by the people of Taiwan called the Formosan language. the Dutch who once occupied Taiwan calls Taiwanese Indians or people from Kalimantan, Aceh (Sumatra), the Malay Peninsula, Australia, and Java are still united. About 2 million years ago the so-called The Glacial Period of the areas mentioned above and the surrounding islands are still united. Territory included Sundaland covers about 1,800,000 km², or the size of the Continent Europe.
The third opinion believes that the ancestors of the Acehnese came from the Achemenians (Achemenis) or more popular with the Achaemenid or Achaemenid. They exodus because he lost the war with Raja Iskandar Zulkarnain (the Great alexander). It is believed that this nation gave birth to many great figures in Aceh who generally became leaders in the Public. The existence of this nation is hard to deny now because it is impossible for them to come together to Aceh if there is no old history to make them choose Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam, even empirical evidence was found much of the Acehnese language is similar to Persian, such as that previously mentioned.
Various Mentions for the Aceh Region
In ancient times before Aceh was annexed by the Dutch, various designations for the area that has now become part The Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia (NKRI). Not yet answered until now the difference in designation for the Aceh region by various nations of the world. Mention non-uniformity is not only because of the difference in pronosis, but because of the difference linguistics and dialect are the main causes of its occurrence these differences.
The land of Aceh has been known since ancient times as country with abundant natural resources. Even
there was a need of the world community at that time it simply existed in Aceh, such as Perlak Wood for shipbuilding and Barus lime for preserving the bodies of great people in one particular dynasty, such as the preservation of the corpse of the King of Egypt Pharaoh/Pharaoh or in the Western world better known as Ramses II (1279 BC – 1213 BC). In ancient Aceh, it was also famous for its wealth quite a lot of gold so that most of the European nations called Negeri Aceh as Aurea Chersonese or Golden Chersonese which means a land with a lot of gold or golden peninsula. Ancient Indians also mentioned Land of Aceh with Swarnadwipa (Golden Island) or Swarnabhumi (Golden Land).
It is called the golden land because it is in the region gold in the amount the world needed at that time. Another name for the Island is Reminzar or Oskegetin or
a traveler from China, Yi Tsing (634-713 AD called it by Kin-Tcheou or Chin-chou which means golden land. 64 They (China) also calls it Lan-wu-lie and nan-po-li or lan-li.
In the Nalanda Inscription published by the King Dewapala (856-861 AD) from the Nutmeg Kingdom is also mentioned that Balaputradewa is the maharaja of Swarnadwipa. Swarnadwipa is an Indian term that comes from the Sanskrit language of classical historical times to refer to Aceh and surrounding. At this time the Arabs (Middle East) too mention Sarandib or Suwarandib, transliteration of the name Swarnadwipa.
Daniel Perret in his paper, “Aceh as a Field for Ancient History Studies” presented at the Conference
International at Syiah Kuala University in Banda Aceh on 24 January 2007 revealed that in the 19th century some Arabs call Aceh's territory with Rami or Ramni and Lamri (Lambre) or Lamuri. According to Cortesao, the names all of which refer to the country in Aceh as the Center A famous city and port
In the Old Javanese Negarakertagama written by Empu Prapanca, Aceh is called Nan P'o-Li. Chinese people (China) in the past also called Sumutula or Sumentala or Sumendala (meaning ambitious) for Aceh especially those located in Samudera Pasai, it is even recognized that the name Sumatra
actually is the Ocean (North Aceh). Anthony Reid, an Australian historian believes that Sumatra which actually is Samudera Pasai (Aceh), because according to him Ocean meaning in Sanskrit is sea.
Samatra (Sumatra) in Spanish and Portuguese means sudden wind and rain. It is as one evidence that the land of Aceh in the past was also known as Negeri di Bawah Wind (The State beyond of the Wind). This term generally used by the peoples of the Middle East in the 19th century mid. Middle Ages is the term used from the 5th to the 15th centuries AD.
Taqiyuddin Muhammad, an Acehnese historian and also the Epigraph Expert explains that the name Sumatra originates from the Kurdish term of the word Symmuthrah. Kurdish language itself belongs to the group of Iranian (Persian) languages. It means Shummuthrah is a land containing salt. This matter strengthened by a place called Syamtalira which located on the coast of Aceh. There are Syamtalira Bayu and Syamtalira Aron. Phonetic changes occurred when Europeans in particular The Portuguese who find it difficult to pronounce the letter "r" so that it becomes Sumatra.
The name Sumatra actually comes from the name Samudera, a kingdom in Aceh (Pasai) in the 13th and 14th centuries. para European travelers since the 15th century used royal names that's to say the whole island. Famous explorer Abad Medieval of Italian origin, Odorico da Pordenone (1286-1331 AD) in the story of his voyage in 1318 mentions that
he sailed east from Coromandel, India, for 20 days, then arrived in Sumoltra (Sumatra). He told me that in Sumoltra already had a large kingdom which he called Lamori (Lamuri).
Ibn Bathutah tells the story in the book Rihlah ilal Masyriq (Wandering to the East) that in 1345 he stopped by in the Kingdom of Samatrah. In 1490 Ibn Majid made map of the area around the Indian Ocean and it says islands Samatrah. This map of Ibn Majid was copied by Roteiro in 1498 and came the name Camatarra. Map made by Amerigo Vespucci 1501 includes the name Samatara, while the map of Masser in 1506 gave rise to the name Samatra. Ruy d'Araujo year 1510 called the island Camatra, and Alfonso Albuquerque in 1512 wrote it Camatora. Italian explorer Antonio Pigafetta (1480-1534 AD) in 1521 used the name Somatra in his book. Dutch and English records, since Jan Huygen van Linschoten (1563-1611 AD) and Sir Francis Drake (1540-1596 AD) of the 16th century, had written in their books the name Sumatra.
Greek figures especially Claudius Ptolemaeus (90-198 M) with his famous work "Geografia" and part
Europeans also sometimes call Aceh with names Aurea Chersonese or Golden Chersonese which means country a lot of gold. It is proven that the Aceh region since ancient times Until now, gold has been found everywhere. In Pidie is famous in Geumpang, West Aceh around the Mas River, Kaway XVI, Teunom, and Pante Ceureumen, even close all the mountains of West Aceh contain gold. Per month no less around 89,262.9 grams or around 1.1 tons per year Ibn Mas'ud was sent to China to ask for responsibility answered the Tang Dynasty who helped the Persians when there was War Nahawand against the Sasanian Empire.
Greek geographer Claudius Ptolemaeus, revealed, in Indonesia there is a country that known as Aurea Chersonesus or Golden Chersonese (Is Emas or Golden Peninsula) is Aceh. In notes his 7th book “Geographia”, Claudius Ptolemaeus wrote that there is a port on Jabadiou Island71 which
located in the westernmost part of Indonesia named Argyre or Argore which is believed to be Aceh.
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